By Bulent Gokay
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Additional info for A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 1918-1923
The Sky Falls Down: Isolated, Challenged, and Threatened Unstable coalition governments and economic instability continued from 1991 to 2002. What made the situation even more unstable than it seemed was the fact that many political, economic, and natural disasters and crises overlapped each other in this decade. The PKK was established as a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist organization in 1978 by some college students under the leadership of Abdullah Öcalan, then a student at Ankara University, Faculty of Political Science.
Nearly double the number of Alevi women than men go a mosque more than once a week. 4 100 100 100 100 100 100 32 ● The Rising Tide of Conservatism in Turkey put together). For women this drops down to one in every five. When we compare these figures with the non-Alevi or Sunni majority practices, we see that the difference between the two communities is much larger for men than for women. In other words, only about 14 percent of Sunni men report to be nonpracticioners (“less than once a year,” “never, almost never” answers put together), whereas this figure is 27 percent for Alevi men—nearly double the size.
However, among the Alevi community, this proportion went down to about eight out of ten. About 10 percent of the Alevis in our sample reported to believe less than 50 percent of the religious values presented to them on our list. Religious Practice The dimension of ritualistic or religious practice comprises acts of worship through which believers are expected to show their devotion to their religion. Such practices shape their religious identities through socialization experiences; individuals adopt certain key values commonly shared by their fellow believers and become part of a community of believers.
A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 1918-1923 by Bulent Gokay