Middle East

William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton's A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition) PDF

By William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton

ISBN-10: 0813343747

ISBN-13: 9780813343747

This finished paintings offers a penetrating research of recent center japanese background, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, during the problem of Western imperialism, to the yankee invasion of Iraq and Iran’s new impact within the area. After introducing the reader to the region’s historical past from the origins of Islam within the 7th century, A background of the fashionable heart East specializes in the earlier centuries of profound and infrequently dramatic swap. even though equipped round a framework of political heritage, the e-book additionally conscientiously integrates social, cultural, and monetary advancements right into a unmarried, expertly crafted account. In updating this fourth version of the past due William Cleveland’s well known introductory textual content, Martin Bunton addresses contemporary transformative advancements within the center East, charting the decline within the peace customers among Israelis and Palestinians, elaborating upon the resurgence of Islam, and devoting a brand new bankruptcy to “America’s stricken second within the heart East,” which information the aftermath of the Iraq warfare and Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

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Additional info for A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition)

Example text

Eventually the term caliph came to designate the religious and political leader of the Islamic community, and the office became known as the caliphate. Abu Bakr and his three successors, Umar (634–644), Uthman (644–656), and Ali (656–661), are known in Islamic history as the Rashidun (rightly guided) caliphs in recognition of their personal closeness to the Prophet and their presumed adherence to Quranic regulations. Although two of them were assassinated and their reigns were filled with political and social turmoil, Muslims of later and even more troubled times looked back with nostalgia on the era when the four companions of the Prophet launched the movement that thrust the Arabs out of the peninsula and into world history.

Zakat is an annual wealth tax all Muslims must pay. 5 percent of a person’s accumulated wealth and assets and was collected by the central treasury. Jihad The obligation of jihad, although not a formal part of ritual, constitutes an integral component of Islamic doctrine. The basic meaning of jihad is striving in the path of God. This can refer to an individual’s inner struggle against sinful inclinations or to an exceptional effort for the good of the Islamic community. Certain modern Muslim writers have thus emphasized the need to internalize jihad in order to achieve religious reform.

The universalism of the Abbasids was symbolized by yet another transfer of the imperial capital, this time from the predominantly Arab city of Damascus eastward to a newly created city, Baghdad, which the caliph al-Mansur established on the west bank of the Tigris. The change of location brought the Islamic political center into more direct contact with Iranian imperial traditions, with their emphasis on royal absolutism and bureaucratic specialization, and added yet another layer of influences to the Arab and Byzantine experiences of the Islamic state.

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A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition) by William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton


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