By Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold
This article covers all of the vital and well known not obligatory devices of the IMI Technical certificate and NVQ point 1 & 2 syllabus, from future health and protection laws to fault discovering and changing elements. totally up to date, it additionally has motor vehicle upkeep strategies built-in all through, making it the imperative first lecture room and workshop textual content for all scholars of motorcar engineering, apprentices and prepared amateurs. The textual content is made available to all degrees of skill via its transparent, logical process, very good illustrations and step by step improvement of concept and perform. there's counsel on getting ready portfolios of facts, and useful routines are integrated to illustrate real workshop perform. *
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Additional info for A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance
41 Areas of boundary friction . Boundary friction This is friction between Fig. 39 Examples of dry sliding friction . Dry friction This is friction between two materials without any type of lubrication. It can generate a large amount of heat (Fig. 40). Fig. 40 Heat is generated by dry friction two materials where very little lubrication is present (Fig. 41). Fluid friction (hydrodynamic friction) A film of fluid prevents contact between two materials, for example between the rotating crankshaft journal and the bearing.
Piston positioned in the cylinder at TDC, the inlet and exhaust valves positioned in the cylinder head. 14 The main components used in the construction of the engine Camshafts As we have seen, the function of the camshaft is to open the valves at the correct time in the cycle of operations of the engine. It is also used as a drive for various auxiliary units such as the distributor, fuel pump and oil pump. The position of the camshaft can be in the cylinder block (often termed as side-mounted).
The traditional way of showing exactly when the valve opens and closes is by the use of a valve-timing diagram (Fig. 14). As can be seen the valves are opened and closed in relation to the number of degrees of movement of the crankshaft. When comparing the diagrams for the petrol engine of medium and high performance cars, it will be noticed that the high performance car has larger valve opening periods, especially the closing of the inlet valve which is later. This is so that at high operating speeds the increased lag allows as much pressure energy as possible to be generated in the cylinder by the incoming air and fuel charge, prior to its further compression by the rising piston.
A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance by Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold