By Kenneth E. Wilkening
Acid Rain technological know-how and Politics in Japan is a pioneering paintings in environmental and Asian background in addition to an in-depth research of the impression of technological know-how on family and overseas environmental politics. Kenneth Wilkening's research additionally illuminates the worldwide fight to create sustainable societies.The Meiji recovery of 1868 ended Japan's period of isolation- created self-sufficiency and sustainability. the hole of the rustic to Western rules and know-how not just introduced toxins difficulties linked to industrialization (including acid rain) but additionally clinical options for knowing and scuffling with them. Wilkening identifies 3 pollution-related "sustainability crises" in sleek eastern heritage: copper mining within the overdue 19th and early 20th centuries, which spurred Japan's first acid rain study and coverage projects; horrendous post-World battle II family commercial pollutants, which led to a "hidden" acid rain challenge; and the present-day international challenge of transboundary toxins, in which Japan is a sufferer of imported acid rain. He strains the country's clinical and coverage responses to those crises via six exact classes concerning acid rain difficulties and argues that Japan's management position in East Asian acid rain technological know-how and coverage this day might be defined largely by way of the "historical medical momentum" generated by means of efforts to confront the problem due to the fact 1868, bolstered by means of Japan's cultural affinity with rain (its "culture of rain"). Wilkening offers an outline of nature, tradition, and the acid rain challenge in Japan to supplement the final set of thoughts he develops to research the interface of technology and politics in environmental policymaking. He concludes with a dialogue of classes from Japan's event that may be utilized to the construction of sustainable societies around the world.
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Additional info for Acid Rain Science and Politics in Japan: A History of Knowledge and Action toward Sustainability (Politics, Science, and the Environment)
This is sometimes tricky for science-topolicy bridging objects because different people express the same concept in different words. The existence of science-to-policy bridging objects in and of themselves tells us little about political inﬂuence. Central to understanding political inﬂuence is classifying different types of bridging objects because different objects (representing different types and degrees of scientiﬁc knowledge) carry different political weight. Based on Japan’s acid deposition history, I distinguished the following classes of environmentally related, policy-inﬂuencing science-to-policy bridging objects: existence bridging objects—concepts expressing the existence of a problem or some aspect of it without necessarily conﬁrming its extent, intensity, cause, or impacts; • character bridging objects—concepts expressing the character of some aspect of a problem; • extent-intensity, trend, or distribution bridging objects—concepts describing the extent and/or intensity of the problem or an aspect of it, including trends and distributions; • cause-and-effect bridging objects—concepts codifying chains of cause and effect; • impact bridging objects—concepts delineating impacts of the problem on society and/or ecosystems (one type of impact bridging object is closely tied to risk assessment, called risk assessment bridging objects); • Sustainable Science, Politics, and Environment 29 solution bridging objects—concepts expressing all or part of the solution path (to be explained further later).
The seas complicate acid deposition research in numerous ways. There are, for instance, relatively few mid-ocean meteorological observations. Yet such data are critical for accurate long-range transport modeling of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Also, there are few open ocean measurements of dry and wet deposition rates (shipboard measurements of such rates are notoriously difﬁcult to execute). Yet such data are critical for determining the amount of acidic substances reaching Japan from the mainland.
Once operationalized, the policy hopefully solves or at least mitigates the original environmental problem (and aids in achieving sustainability). Scientists and scientiﬁc knowledge can play a role in any or all stages of policymaking. 1 is used at the end of each chapter describing one of Japan’s acid deposition periods as a device for illustrating the role and inﬂuence of science on policymaking during the period. Two types of policymaking are considered in this book—domestic and foreign. In relation to acid deposition, domestic policymaking focuses on the domestically created manifestation of the problem, and foreign policymaking focuses on the transboundary dimension of the problem.
Acid Rain Science and Politics in Japan: A History of Knowledge and Action toward Sustainability (Politics, Science, and the Environment) by Kenneth E. Wilkening