By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow structures and engineering concepts for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection structures that may increase restoration components. while utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is among the low cost tools for making sure greatest creation premiums. This e-book presents either theoretical research and useful circumstances for designing and comparing water injection platforms and figuring out key construction variables concerned with making particular predictions for oil and water generating charges, water injection charges, and restoration efficiency.
This publication essentially explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulation theories. those subject matters are then utilized to layout and implementation. software instances of 4 oilfields are integrated to assist advance ideas whereas illustrating the right kind workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The ebook can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulate theories
- Provides distinctive examinations of facets corresponding to tension sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear move theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complicated waterflooding systems
- Includes genuine case reviews from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
Since fractures often have higher permeabilities, the ultralow-permeability reservoirs where microfractures are well developed usually have strong water absorptivity and require relatively low flooding pressure, which remains comparatively stable in the flooding process. Take the Chang-6 reservoir in Ansai, for example. The flooding pressure at the beginning was about 6 MPa, and by the end of 2006 it reached 7 MPa. Such stability of flooding pressure is good for advanced waterflooding (Fig. 1-16).
1-32). In addition, as has been discussed, advanced water injection can effectively increase the swept volume and enhance oil recovery. 06 (MPa) FIGURE 1-32 Curves of displacing pressure and efficiency in Ansai. Our numerical modeling shows that advanced injection can increase the recovery efficiency by 3%B5%. 7 Slowing Down Output Decline The key to the development of ultralow-permeability oilfields is to enhance the per-well output and extend the duration of stabilized output so as to improve their economic conditions.
This dual effect intensifies areal conflicts in waterflood development. At the same time, the water drive in the layers with few fractures developed may have poor results for oil production. 1 Features of Responses In the waterflood development of ultralow-permeability reservoirs in Changqing, the oil producers often have a response time of three to six months. 2% after one year of injection, but the areal responses are different, with some wells responding very slowly. Take the Wangyao block of Ansai, for example.
Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice by Ran Xinquan