Middle Ages

Read e-book online All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World PDF

By Ruth A. Johnston

ISBN-10: 0313364621

ISBN-13: 9780313364624

All issues Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World covers the widest definition of "medieval Europe" attainable, now not via overlaying heritage within the conventional, textbook demeanour of directory wars, leaders, and important ancient occasions, yet by means of proposing designated alphabetical entries that describe the artifacts of medieval Europe. by way of analyzing the hidden fabric tradition and via offering information regarding issues that few books cover—pottery, locks and keys, sneakers, weaving looms, barrels, toys, pets, ink, kitchen utensils, and masses more—readers get useful insights into the character of lifestyles in the course of that point interval and area.

The heartland ecu areas comparable to England, France, Italy, and Germany are coated commonly, and data concerning the items of areas reminiscent of Byzantium, Muslim Spain, and Scandinavia also are integrated. for every subject of fabric tradition, the access considers the whole scope of the medieval period—roughly 500-1450—to provide the reader a ancient point of view of comparable traditions or innovations and describes the craftsmen and instruments that produced it.

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For luxury armor, the pieces were etched with acid or plated with gold. Finally, the master armorer finished the harness. He riveted the pieces together and riveted strips of leather to the proper edges. He riveted hinges made by a locksmith and added more straps and buckles. Many of the plates were fitted with padding. The final harness weighed around 60 pounds, comparable to a modern soldier’s heavy pack. In the 14th century, armorers developed plate armor for horses. The most important plate, the peytral, covered the horse’s chest, which was most vulnerable to a pike or lance attack.

The Book of Hebrew Script: History, Paleography, Script Styles, Calligraphy, and Design. London: British Library, 2003. Animals During the Middle Ages, the word animal meant any living thing, human or nonhuman. Beast, originally a French word for a wild animal, came to mean any nonhuman living thing and encompassed both domestic and wild animals by the end of the period. The distinction between wild and domesticated animals was not as clear in the Middle Ages as it is now. Even today, some dogs can be wild, pets, or working animals; at that time, many other animals could be any of these categories.

A pad of horsehair often padded the area where the arm rested against the shield to protect it from being bruised by direct blows. At first, the new tactical method of cavalry charges with lances made knights carry larger, heavier shields during the 12th and 13th centuries. The shields were called targes and were covered with leather. Knights needed to take several shields, which were carried by their squires, into battle. However, this increased use of shields did not last. Shields were not used as an active part of a knight’s defenses after full plate armor came into use.

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All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World by Ruth A. Johnston

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