By S. V. Griffith
Alluvial Prospecting and Mining (Second Revised version) specializes in the emergence of more desirable mining innovations and techniques utilized in the excavation of alluvial deposits.
The ebook first deals info at the prospecting equipment, sampling, and valuation. Discussions specialize in initial systematic prospecting, drilling in tough floor, supervision of drilling, cost of excavation, pitting and drilling in comparison, sampling of bore holes, and calculation of reserves. The booklet then examines water offer, together with earth dams, spillways, leats, ditches, or canals, and layout of pipelines.
The manuscript ponders on sluicing and dry focus of minerals. themes contain rock pavements, undercurrents, fake bottoms, glean up, tailings, floor sluicing, water required, exploitation of vegetation, electrostatic separation, and excessive depth magnetic separators. The ebook additionally experiences ahead practise of overburden, hydraulic mining, and gravel pumping.
The e-book is a responsible reference for miners and readers attracted to alluvial prospecting and mining.
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Extra info for Alluvial Prospecting and Mining
The pan, still under water, is then given a circular or gyratory motion in a horizontal plane, which causes heavy particles to settle, and lighter particles to come to the surface; at frequent intervals, the pan is gently tipped forward and the lighter material at the surface washed off. This process is continued until nothing but gold, or other mineral, and a little heavy sand, is left in the pan, which is dried, and the mineral separated from the sand, by gently blowing the sand away, or adding mercury to collect the gold, as amalgam, in the case of gold samples.
Long torn in operation. Sluice box. For general description of construction, and method of opera tion, see Chapter V. Diamond washer. The diamond washer or "shaker", as it is more com monly called in West Africa, for washing diamondiferous ground, is shown in Fig. 28. It has a bottom discharge, with three coarse screens above, each one being FIG. 28. West African diamond washer. Longitudinal and cross sections, and plan. SAMPLING AND VALUATION 37 removable. The shaker works in two bush logs, hollowed out to suit, and embedded in the ground; the screens are 8, 4, 2 and 1 mm mesh, the 8 mm screen being on top, and the 1 mm screen at the bottom.
The difficulty, however, is to drill through the column of quicksand in the casing, so as to reach the casing shoe; very often this can only be done by continuing drilling, even when the bailer is already completely full. It thus works as a pump, pumping sand from under its shoe, and discharging it over the top of the bailer, where it can be kept in suspension for a short time, so long as the bailer is moved up and down rapidly. PROSPECTING METHODS 2ζ When the casing has descended about a foot, the four drillers raise the bailer as high as possible, by lifting the rod turners over their heads and keeping it so, until the sand in the casing has settled; if the bailer is allowed to rest on the bottom of the hole for a short time, or if it is operated too slowly, the sand in suspension will settle on top of it, and the bore will be lost, as the bailer will only come free by the withdrawal of the casing.
Alluvial Prospecting and Mining by S. V. Griffith