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Download PDF by Kāvaśajī Dīnaśāhajī Kiash: Ancient Persian Sculptures

By Kāvaśajī Dīnaśāhajī Kiash

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Extra resources for Ancient Persian Sculptures

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Religious elements in Iranian culture were also produced and sustained by non-specialist believers. Since even ‘orthodox’ Shi’a practices did not depend predominantly on a central institutional authority such as a papacy, localised authority and religious choice were important. Many religious traditions encourage the independent activity of believers, whether in the lives of individual ascetics or mystics (Hindu, Christian, Buddhist, Muslim) or by ‘lay’ provision of religious ritual, education and welfare (charity, pilgrimages, Methodist classes, Jewish Passover).

While material and organisational aspects of change for the ‘ulama are examined in Chapters 2 and 3, and the impact of new ideologies in Chapter 5, it is worth reflecting on the entwining of elements of cultural change and persistence in Iranian communities and hierarchies. Within the diverse communities of Iran, the effect of governmental or other drives for secular policies varied considerably. The imposition of new secular legal procedures or administrative controls was more widespread than the effects of modern schooling or cultural regulation.

While the structures of land use and absentee ownership did not alter, the backgrounds of those who acquired and held land became more varied. 44 With the changes of law (ending old forms of royal land grant) and of sources of power under the new regime, the number of successful professionals, army officers and government officials able to acquire landed property increased further. The extreme case was Reza Shah himself who, by the time of his abdication, held an estimated 3 million acres of estates forcibly purchased or confiscated from others.

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Ancient Persian Sculptures by Kāvaśajī Dīnaśāhajī Kiash


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