By Zeynep Yürekli
In keeping with an intensive exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival records and hagiographies, this ebook uncovers the political value of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It hence offers a clean and accomplished account of the formative technique of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial regulations within the past due 15th century, used to be recommended imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) gentle strength coverage, and saved less than payment by way of imperial experts because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened throughout the remainder of the 16th century. This e-book demonstrates that it used to be a mix of 2 collective actions that proven the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the past due 15th century onwards. One was once the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto special social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another during the lives of old figures who have been their identification markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman background in artistic methods. the opposite one used to be the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. when it comes to type, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output finds a sophisticated means of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional element within the booklet are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. although verified as self sustaining associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community below the Ottomans, grew to become its primary centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, mostly below the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They therefore got here to occupy an middleman socio-political region among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra resources for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
Istanbul, Topkapı Palace Library, H. 1344 (fol. 78b right; 79a left). This page has been left blank intentionally 28 Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire them as clean-shaven and dressed in simple felt cloaks. They wore white caps made of twelve pieces of cloth stitched together. These appear to have been similar in shape to the red caps worn as a token of Twelver Shiʿite affiliation by the Turcoman supporters of the Safavids who were known as Kızılbaş, literally ‘Red-heads’. The Bektashi cap was decorated with a button made of what is referred to as ‘the Seyyid Gazi stone’.
576–9 (fols 131b–132a); Manzûm, Noyan, p. 404. 61 Giovanantonio Menavino, I Cinque Libri della Legge, Religione, et Vita de’ Turchi et della Corte, d’alcune guerre del Gran Turco (Vinegia, 1548), pp. 60–62; Cristobal de Villalon, Viaje de Turquia (Madrid, 1965), pp. 205–7; Michel Baudier, Histoire générale de la religion des Turcs (Paris, 1625), pp. 186–8. 62 See documents quoted in Chapter 1. 64 It is about two shrines and the social network that accounts for their remodelling in the sixteenth century.
70 The exact relation of the social network formed by these groups to its cultural products has yet to be fully explored. Of these cultural products, architecture deserves as much scholarly attention as hagiographic literature. The two other salient components of Bektashi culture, namely poetry and ritual music, are outside the scope of this book. But I hope that this study will provide a historical framework for studying them contextually, because the shrines accommodated the creators of, and the audience for, poetry and music, which, like the architecture of the shrines, derived their meaning from legends.
Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age by Zeynep Yürekli