By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk grew to become the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately remodeling his state right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified by way of science--and via the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign ideally suited because the new faith. This ebook presents the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the historic context of the turbulent age during which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the past due Ottoman imperial order to the trendy Turkish nation via his existence and ideas.
laying off gentle on essentially the most complicated and enigmatic statesmen of the trendy period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's early life as a Muslim boy within the unstable ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and army colleges, to his include of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks flow. Who was once this determine who sought glory as an formidable younger officer in international warfare I, defied the triumphant Allies purpose on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each degree of his lifestyles, demonstrating how he was once profoundly stimulated via the recent principles that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He indicates how Atatürk drew on a different mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to type a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.
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Extra info for Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography
15 das volk in waffen 39 found admiration for the Japanese, whose victory over Russia was perceived at the time as the triumph of indigenous modernization over the West. Mustafa Kemal also stood out as an irreducible opponent of the personality cult surrounding Sultan Abdülhamid II. Along with other officers of his generation, he considered the ritualized veneration of the sultan a betrayal of the ideal of a nation in arms, which stood above any flesh-and-blood ruler. In a sign of growing opposition to the sultan, many students at the imperial colleges demonstrated an increasing aversion to any expression of loyalty to him.
The Young Turk Revolution thus provided an unexpected opportunity for the fulfillment of Goltz’s vision of a militarized nation guided by army officers. 13 By the time Mustafa Kemal matriculated, the academy was consciously striving to produce not merely capable officers but “a new class” that would guide the nation. In this sense, the reform of the academy under Goltz served to institutionalize a process of social differentiation that had been taking place for several decades. Although the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-nineteenth century sought to promote equality among Ottoman subjects of various religions, and to reduce the chasm between the ruling class and the masses, the creation of a new Western-style army drove a wedge between the new military elite and the rest of society.
In this context, old meant primarily traditional and religious, while new signified European and secular. Many Ottomans of this period viewed life as a perennial tug-of-war between modernity and tradition. In several important ways, Salonica tilted toward the former. The city sported bustling Western-style cafés serving Viennese beer; literary clubs hosting philosophical debates; theaters staging dramas, comedies, and operettas; numerous institutions of learning; and a sizable and vibrant European community.
Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu