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By Jacob M. Landau

ISBN-10: 0865319863

ISBN-13: 9780865319868

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39 Occidentalists and Turkists, while proclaiming their attachment to Islam (which they would have preferred to see modernized and turkified), called for an end to the intervention of religion in lay affairs. The fight for laicization of the Ottoman state was spearheaded by Abdullah Cevdet, in his review ictihad ("Free Opinion"), which sometimes expressed undisguised anticlerical ism. We find in this journal, which strongly influenced Mustafa Kemal, a large number of proposed reforms which were later implemented under the Republic: suppression of the tekkes and zaviyes (convents and monastic cells), closing of the medreses, latinization of the alphabet, emancipation of women and prohibition of the farJaf (traditional feminine dress), replacement of Islamic headgear by Western hats, and turkification of the Koran and of traditional religious texts.

37. Z. Ulken, op. , p. 76; but cf. ~. Mardin, op. , pp. , which stresses the complex and ambiguous character of Suavi's thought on the role of religion in public affairs. 38. On the subject of Bqir Fuad, sec M. Orhan Okay, Be{ir Fuad, ilk Turk Poziti)'ist pe Naturalisti (Bqir Fuad, the First Turkish Positivist and Naturalist) (Istanbul: Hareket, undated). 44 Paul Dumont 39. On the Islamists, see Tank Zafer Tunaya, jslamctllk Cereyam (The Islamic Trend) (Istanbul: Baha, 1962). 40. Stanford]. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, vol.

After the Young Turk 32 Paul Dumont Revolution of 1908, the word halk (people) and its derivatives became among the most frequently used terms in the Turkish vocabulary. In nationalist reviews such as Turk Yurdu entire columns were devoted to action in favor of the masses. A journal expressly dedicated to the cause of populism appeared in Istanbul; it was called Halka dojjru (Toward the People). The available data does not definitively indicate to what degree Turkish populism was indebted for its ideas to the narodniki movement and other foreign currents, but'there is reason to believe that external models did exercise some influence.

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Atatürk and the modernization of Turkey by Jacob M. Landau

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