By Peter Reese
The conflict of Bannockburn, at which Robert the Bruce's military vanquished Edward I, is still probably the most major and ongoing assets of Scottish satisfaction. This heritage starts off with the army clashes through the preliminary phases of the Wars of Independence. After Bruce's rebellion opposed to Edward I, it follows his chain of army successes which resulted in the siege of the English garrison in Stirling fort and taken concerning the nice conflict among either international locations at Bannockburn. The booklet considers the importance of the Scottish victory, primarily—but now not exclusively—in the sunshine in their endured battlefield successes that forced England to recognize Scotland's re-emergence as a sovereign energy 14 years later.
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Additional resources for Bannockburn: Scotland's Greatest Victory
The text says, then the victim should cook a badger’s testicles in honey and drink them with water from a spring on an empty stomach for three days. ⁴³ CONCLUSION The continuities and changes that can be seen in a comparison of ancient and medieval discussions of magically-caused impotence are revealing. Some continuities were the result of direct textual transmission: Pliny, Dioscorides, the Kyranides, Sextus Placitus, and Marcellus Empiricus were still being read (sometimes in abridged forms) many centuries later, and their recipes were copied by medieval writers.
In his second discussion, however, Hincmar considered the subject from the point of view of marriage law, and here for the ﬁrst time it became necessary to discuss impotence magic in particular. This second discussion, of impotence magic alone, became the basis of much later medieval writing on the subject. HINCMAR OF RHEIMS (1): MAGIC AND A ROYAL DIVORCE Hincmar ﬁrst mentioned impotence magic in relation to the ongoing attempts of King Lothar II of Lotharingia to divorce his wife Theutberga and marry his concubine Waldrada.
Both Tibullus and Ovid made it clear that magic was not the only possible explanation for this sudden impotence. ⁹ However, both poets were aware that magic was one explanation for mysterious impotence, and mentioned some ways in which it might be done: by a potion, or powerful words, or sticking needles in a wax ﬁgure. Petronius envisaged a similar situation in his Satyricon, written in ad 63–5. The Satyricon is a long story which describes, among other things, the adventures of Encolpius and his companions, of which only fragments survive.
Bannockburn: Scotland's Greatest Victory by Peter Reese