By Carl Sagan
Within the ultimate booklet of his surprising profession, Carl Sagan brilliantly examines the burning questions of our lives, our international, and the universe round us. those luminous, interesting essays shuttle either the vastness of the cosmos and the intimacy of the human brain, posing such attention-grabbing questions as how did the universe originate and the way will it finish, and the way do we meld technology and compassion to satisfy the demanding situations of the arriving century? the following, too, is a unprecedented, inner most glimpse of Sagan's recommendations approximately love, dying, and God as he struggled with deadly disorder. Ever forward-looking and colourful with the glint of his unquenchable interest, Billions & Billions is a testomony to at least one of the nice medical minds of our day.
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Extra resources for Billions & Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium
Edited by L. R. Haaheim, J. R. Pattison and R. J. Whitley Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBNs: 0-470-84429-9 (HB); 0-471-95097-1 (PB) THE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 4. ANTIVIRAL DRUGS J. S. Oxford and R. J. Whitley The history of antiviral chemotherapy as a science is short, commencing in the 1950s with the discovery of methisazone which is a thiosemicarbazone drug inhibiting the replication of poxviruses. The experience of clinical application of antivirals is even shorter and most comprehensively involves 24 important licensed drugs: amantadine and the related molecule rimantadine, primary amines which inhibit inﬂuenza A viruses; the newer antineuraminidase drugs which inhibit both inﬂuenza A and B viruses; aciclovir and related acyclic nucleoside analogues inhibiting herpes type I and type II; zidovudine and the group of dideoxynucleoside analogues, non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase and also inhibitors of the viral protease enzyme.
Alternatively, preparation of the slide has to be made locally. Blood (serum) and faeces can be sent in the usual way. Antibody examinations are mostly performed with serum. Anticoagulants added to whole blood may interfere with complement activity and enzyme functions, and should be avoided. In certain situations (SSPE, herpes simplex encephalitis) antibody titration is performed on cerebrospinal ﬂuid. Acute infection is diagnosed by demonstrating a rise in titre, seroconversion or speciﬁc IgM (or IgA).
Can we reduce the number of visits to health clinics by developing more multivalent vaccines? Can reliable methods of time-controlled slow release of vaccine material be developed, ensuring both priming and booster doses at a single visit to the clinic? More eﬀective adjuvants and vaccine vehicles should be developed. Especially important are designed molecules that can ensure uptake by epithelial cells at the mucosal linings. How can a more potent mucosal response be stimulated? How can we ensure better long-term immunological memory?
Billions & Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium by Carl Sagan