By Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman
In the course of improvement cells and tissues endure alterations in trend and shape that hire a much wider diversity of actual mechanisms than at the other time in an organism's existence. This publication demonstrates how physics can be utilized to research those organic phenomena. Written to be obtainable to either biologists and physicists, significant phases and elements of the organic improvement procedure are brought after which analyzed from the point of view of physics. The presentation of actual versions calls for no arithmetic past simple calculus.
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In the course of improvement cells and tissues suffer alterations in trend and shape that hire a much wider diversity of actual mechanisms than at the other time in an organism's lifestyles. This publication demonstrates how physics can be utilized to research those organic phenomena. Written to be obtainable to either biologists and physicists, significant levels and elements of the organic improvement method are brought after which analyzed from the point of view of physics.
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Extra resources for Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo
Taking this into account, we next present a simple surface-tension-based model (where ‘‘surface tension” in fact represents the cortical tension) of the early cleavage stages in the sea urchin (for comprehensive reviews, see Rappaport 1986, 1996). The results of the model will also characterize the ﬁrst and later cleavage stages of other classes of organisms. Cleavage: the White–Borisy model The sea urchin zygote is initially spherical. Its cytoplasm has the same composition throughout the cell cortex and it thus possesses an isotropic surface tension (Yoneda, 1973).
According to the assumption of this model, the astral signal breaks the uniformity of the surface tension and leads to its decrease. If no simultaneous change occurs in the radii of curvature then as the surface tension decreases so does the Laplace pressure, which becomes smaller than the original internal pressure. This leads to a force imbalance. Since the volume of the embryo is constant, the embryo bulges outward at the poles (where the decrease of the Laplace pressure is maximal), and ﬂattens in the equatorial region (Fig.
Therefore, in what follows we will retain the term 2 CLEAVAGE AND BLASTULA FORMATION Fig. 8 Topographic specializations of the cell surface. The ﬁbers underlying the membrane and extending into the microspikes and lamellipodia are typically made of actin ﬁlaments or microtubules. The ﬁgure also illustrates schematically how a small portion of the cell membrane (circled in the lower right panel) is aspirated into a micropipette to measure the cortical tension. ‘‘cellular surface tension”. It will need to be remembered, however, that its origin lies in the interaction of the cortical actin network with the cell membrane.
Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo by Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman