Physiology

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By Linda S. Costanzo PhD

ISBN-10: 0781798760

ISBN-13: 9780781798761

Written via very popular body structure professor Linda S. Costanzo, this revised 5th version presents a superb body structure overview for college students getting ready for the USMLE Step 1. The booklet concisely covers key body structure rules and contains medical correlations to stress connections among body structure and scientific medicine.

  • NEW! Full-color layout, move charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize details for handy review
  • Each bankruptcy is written within the well known Board overview Series (BRS) define layout and lines bolded keyword phrases to streamline your study
  • Over 350 USMLE-style questions, solutions, and rationales either electronically and in print toughen your body structure review
  • A FREE spouse site bargains an internet booklet and an interactive query financial institution with all of the questions from the booklet so that you can customise your evaluation tests!

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Example text

ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft and opens Na+ and K+ channels in the muscle end plate, depolarizing it (but not producing an action potential). Depolarization of the muscle end plate causes local currents in adjacent muscle membrane, depolarizing the membrane to threshold and producing action potentials. 5. The answer is C [VI A, B 1–4; VII B 1–4]. An elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] is common to the mechanism of excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal and smooth muscle. In skeletal muscle, Ca2+ binds to troponin C, initiating the cross-bridge cycle.

When the muscle is stretched to greater lengths, the number of cross-bridges is reduced because there is less overlap. When muscle length is decreased, the thin filaments collide and tension is reduced. 2. Force–velocity relationship (Figure 1-15) ■ ■ measures the velocity of shortening of isotonic contractions when the muscle is challenged with different afterloads (the load against which the muscle must contract). The velocity of shortening decreases as the afterload increases. VII. SMOOTH MUSCLE ■ has thick and thin filaments that are not arranged in sarcomeres; therefore, they appear homogeneous rather than striated.

The answer is E [IV D 3 a]. Because the stimulus was delivered during the absolute refractory period, no action potential occurs. The inactivation gates of the Na+ channel were closed by depolarization and remain closed until the membrane is repolarized. As long as the inactivation gates are closed, the Na+ channels cannot be opened to allow for another action potential. 11. The answer is B [II A]. Flux is proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane, J = –PA (CA – CB). Originally, CA – CB = 10 mM – 5 mM = 5 mM.

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BRS Physiology by Linda S. Costanzo PhD


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