By Seemant Chaturvedi, Peter M. Rothwell
Offering an intensive review of swift advancements in clinical remedy, surgical procedure, and angioplasty, this reference presents an entire evaluate of carotid artery stenosis therapy, in addition to a transparent evaluation of carotid surgical procedure and stenting. supplying chapters through professional specialists on epidemiology, imaging with ultrasound and angiography, ldl cholesterol decreasing, blood strain administration, homocysteine remedy, and vitamin amendment, this consultant is a stand-alone resource for present details and realizing of this burgeoning technology.
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Extra info for Carotid Artery Stenosis: Current and Emerging Treatments (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
Introduction 77 2. Ultrasound Technology 78 3. Normal Findings 81 4. Neck Arteries 82 5. Intima-Media Thickness—The Initial Stage 87 6. Plaque Development—The Intermediate Stage 88 7. Plaque Development—The Terminal Stage 96 8. Perspectives 99 References 100 6. Antithrombotic Therapy for Carotid Artery Stenosis Seemant Chaturvedi 111 1. Extracranial Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis 111 2. Oral Anticoagulants 118 3. Ongoing Studies 119 4. Conclusions 120 References 120 7. Stroke Prevention, Blood Cholesterol, and Statins Pierre Amarenco, Philippa Lavallée, and Pierre-Jean Touboul 123 1.
In addition to the association of traditional risk factors with Page 14 carotid artery stenosis, recent evidence suggests a substantial genetic influence at least for the expression of subclinical atherosclerosis as reflected by studies evaluating the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) or the presence of carotid plaques (35–37). In particular, the San Antonio Family Heart Study (35) reported a substantive genetic influence on the formation of focal carotid artery plaque which is believed to represent a more advanced stage of atherosclerosis compared to the intima-media thickness.
4% per annum (62–66); this is comparable to the reported prognosis of medically treated patients enrolled in carotid endarterectomy trials for asymptomatic carotid disease (67,68) or long-term observation of stroke risk in the territory of an asymptomatic carotid stenosis in symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trials (69,70). 8% in patients with a higher degree of stenosis in the range of 80% or more (62,66,71). In some studies, an increase in the mortality rate mostly due to co-existing cardiovascular disease could explain lower stroke rates in individuals with a similar degree of carotid stenosis (72,73).
Carotid Artery Stenosis: Current and Emerging Treatments (Neurological Disease and Therapy) by Seemant Chaturvedi, Peter M. Rothwell