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Ceramic Industry January 2012 - download pdf or read online

By Susan Sutton

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Insoluble in water but soluble in acids. Derived from ignition of bismuth nitrate. Bismuth is a satisfactory constituent of optical glasses. Amounts up to 50% have been used experimentally in glasses of the general molecular formulas: 100SiO2-40Na2O11Bi2O3 and 100SiO2-40K2O-xBi2O3. Compared with corresponding glasses containing lead oxide (PbO) instead of bismuth, these glasses exhibited greater durability, higher specific gravities and higher refractive indices. Any tendency on the part of bismuth to impart a gray color to the glass may be counteracted by the addition of small amounts of arsenic along with an oxidizing agent.

This characteristic, combined with extremely high heat resistance, makes it an attractive candidate for such thermal shock-resistant applications as catalytic converter and diesel engine components. ANDALUSITE. Al2O3SiO2. ) Sp. gr. 5. 1% SiO2. Crystallizes in prismatic orthorhombic crystals; gray, greenish, reddish or bluish in color; transparent to opaque. Occurs commonly as a product of contact metamorphism in slates and schists. Its name is derived from the Andalusia province of Spain, the first locality in which it was noted.

Mol. wt. p. 16 eV; mobility (300 K), cm2/Vs, >580 electrons, >400 holes. Bi2Te3 is usually prepared by reacting nearly stoichiometric amounts of the elements and allowing directional freezing to take place. Bi 2 Te 3 is currently the best known thermoelectric material, but is used only in cooling devices because it loses its semiconducting properties above approximately 100°C. 005 that of copper. This combination gives the material a high thermoelectric power of about 200 mV/C. A refrigerator using thermo-elements of bismuth telluride studied at Battelle Memorial Institute exhibited a maximum temperature difference between hot and cold junctions of 49°C when operated under no-load conditions.

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Ceramic Industry January 2012 by Susan Sutton

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