By David E. Newton
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Extra resources for Chemistry of the Environment
Indd 39 7/19/07 11:32:49 AM 40 CHEMISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT problems depends on a number of factors, one of which, of course, is the concentration of the particulates to which one is exposed and the length of exposure. The people who are most at risk for health problems from particulate exposure are those who already have some form of respiratory disorder or heart disease, the elderly, and children. 5 particulates and about 150 µg/m 3 for PM10 particulates. Such concentrations are observed during dust storms, along dusty unpaved roads, and in areas with high levels of motor vehicle traffic, for instance.
020 ppm in 2001. Again the difference in trends for emissions and monitored levels of nitrogen oxides reflects efforts to reduce the concentration of these gases in areas where pollution is most severe. The primary health effect of nitric oxide results from its tendency to react with hemoglobin in red blood cells, in much the same way as carbon monoxide does. The concentration of nitric oxide is normally so low, however, that this effect is relatively minor, especially compared with the effects of carbon monoxide exposure.
Carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide and any remaining unburned hydrocarbons are converted to carbon dioxide and water: 2CO + O2 k 2CO2 HC + O2 k CO2 + H2O As already noted, even the use of catalytic converters has not produced an overall reduction in the amount of nitrogen oxides released in the United States (and many other parts of the world). indd 29 7/19/07 11:32:42 AM 30 CHEMISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUGENE HOUDRY (1892–1962) ➢ H istorians sometimes point to Earth Day 1970 as the beginning of the modern environmental movement.
Chemistry of the Environment by David E. Newton