By Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl, Thomas J. Hummel
Offers rigorously labored out, entire strategies for all odd-numbered questions and routines within the textual content. makes use of an identical recommendations equipment as examples within the textual content.
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Additional resources for Chemistry: Student Solutions Guide (7th Edition)
The draft horse begins to appear in central Asia and the ancient Near East. Apparently horses were first used to draw carts with wheels and were soon employed in drawing chariots to carry fighting men and to make displays in processions. , humans started to ride horses. Horseback riding represented a major revolution in technology, with dramatic effects, particularly in warfare. Horses had to be bred larger to carry a person, and the practice seemingly grew up first among nomadic tribes that herded horses in central Asia, including what are now Iran and Afghanistan.
Bronze is still made, with a ratio of one part of tin to three parts of copper. In ancient bronze artifacts, the proportion of copper varied from about two-thirds to more than 90 percent. In bronze cannons [II] built in Europe in the 12th century, the proportion was 8 parts copper to 1 part tin. Bronze intended for large bells, or “bell metal,” has a proportion of about 20 to 25 percent tin. In the modern era, bronze alloys with small amounts of other metals have included phosphor bronze, used in making valves and other machine parts, as well as nickel and aluminum bronzes, which are more corrosion-resistant and used in ship propellers and pipe fittings.
Although tin is even softer than copper, the two metals together produced a tougher alloy. The resultant metal was hard enough to hold an edge, and bronze weapons and tools supplanted stone in the following centuries. crossbow Although some Western scholars trace the origin of the crossbow to 10th-century European improvements on the Greek siege ballista, crossbows were common in ancient China. ), both heavy crossbows mounted on carts and individual crossbowmen were found. qxd 5/26/04 10:00 AM Page 35 dams and dikes 35 terra-cotta figures in the emperor’s tomb at Mount Li were some 200 crossbowmen.
Chemistry: Student Solutions Guide (7th Edition) by Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl, Thomas J. Hummel