By CIBA Foundation Symposium
Chapter 1 Chairman's creation (pages 1–2): A. R. Battersby
Chapter 2 An Illustrative instance of a Synthetically necessary Enzyme: Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase (pages 3–21): J. Bryan Jones
Chapter three Enzymic Synthesis of Labelled Chiral ingredients (pages 22–30): Alan R. Battersby
Chapter four Enzyme?Controlled Reactions Giving Alkanols of Use within the Synthesis of Biologically energetic Molecules (pages 31–39): Stanley M. Roberts
Chapter five Large?Scale Purification of Enzymes (pages 40–56): Michael D. Scawen
Chapter 6 Immobilized Enzymes in natural Synthesis (pages 57–75): Klaus Mosbach
Chapter 7 functions of Cell?Free Enzymes in natural Synthesis (pages 76–96): George M. Whitesides
Chapter eight Chiral items from Non?Pyridine Nucleotide?Dependent Reductases and techniques for NAD(P)H Regeneration (pages 97–111): Helmut Simon, Helmut Gunther, Johann Bader and Stefan Neumann
Chapter nine Stereochemistry and artificial purposes of goods of Fermentation of ???Unsaturated fragrant Aldehydes via Baker's Yeast (pages 112–127): Claudio Fuganti and Piero Grasselli
Chapter 10 Extending the Applicability of Esterases of Low Enantioselectivity in uneven Synthesis (pages 128–145): Yi?Fong Wang, Ching?Shih Chen, Gary Girdaukas and Charles J. Sih
Chapter eleven Microbial modifications of a few Monoterpenoids and Sesquiterpenoids (pages 146–170): W. R. Abraham, H. M. R. Hoffmann, ok. Kieslich, G. Reng and B. Stumpf
Chapter 12 production of Novel Chiral Synthons with Enzymes: software to Enantioselective Synthesis of Antibiotics (pages 171–187): Masaji Ohno
Chapter thirteen Kinetics of Trypsin Catalysis within the business Conversion of Porcine Insulin to Human Insulin (pages 188–203): Jan Markussen and Aage Volund
Chapter 14 remodeling Enzymes by way of Site?Directed Mutagenesis (pages 204–218): A. R. Fersht and G. P. Winter
Chapter 15 The layout of latest Enzyme energetic websites for the Catalysis of particular Chemical Reactions (pages 219–237): Emil Thomas Kaiser and Czeslaw Radziejewski
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Additional resources for Ciba Foundation Symposium 111 - Enzymes in Organic Synthesis
These newer matrices are suitable for all types of chromatography, but their improved hydrodynamic properties make them ideally suited for large-scale applications when high flow rates are desirable. These properties give the matrices other advantages; for example the ion exchange derivatives of cross-linked agarose do not show appreciable variations in volume with changes in ionic strength or pH, so they can be regenerated without being removed from the column. TABLE 4 Chromatographic matrices available Type Trade name Cross-linked dextran Cross-linked polyacrylamide Agarose Sephadex" BioGel-Pb Sepharosea BioGel Ab Sepharose CL" SephacryP Ultrogel AcAC TrisacrylC Fractogeld Spherone SephaceP Cellexb DE-52' Polyacrylamide/dextran composite Polyacrylamide/agarose composite Hydroxylated acrylic polymer Cross-linked vinyl polymer Hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer Cellulose derivatives Manufacturers: (a) Pharmacia Fine Chemical AB, Uppsala, Sweden; (b) BioRad Laboratories, Richmond, CA, USA; (c) LKB Producter AB, Bromma, Sweden; (d) Toyo Soda Co, Tokyo, Japan; (e) Lachema, Brno, Czechoslovakia; (f) Whatman Ltd, Maidstone, Kent, UK.
H 2 0 , Me2C0. ( l R , 5R)-2 using N-bromoacetamide in aqueous acetone (Fig. 2). The crude bromohydrin derived from 4 was converted into the L-menthol carbonate derivative and the ratio of diastereoisomers was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography to be 9223 in favour of the (lS,5s) enantiomer. This ratio was assumed to reflect the stereoselectivity of the reduction process which therefore gave alcohol 4 predominantly in the ( l R ,5S, 6s)form from racemic 34 ROBERTS ketone 3. Similarly, the bromohydrin 2 derived from the alcohol 5 was found to be a mixture of enantiomers with a ratio 94:6 in favour of the (lR, 5R) enantiomer, which indicates that (lS, 5R, 6s) was the predominant configuration of 5 (Fig.
D. NH, H H ,? 13 99% of Tritium eliminated FIG. 5 . Enzymic assay of stereochemistry of synthetic (R)-[l-3H,]histamine (top) and of (S)[l-3Hl]histamine produced by decarboxylation of (2S)-[2-3HJhistidine (bottom). I4C-Label is shown by the filled black circle. LAD, liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 27 LABELLED CHIRAL SUBSTANCES hence that the decarboxylation had occurred with retention of configuration; both types of enzyme, one using pyridoxal phosphate and the other a pyruvoyl residue as cofactor, gave the same result.
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