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9. 8. 1. 10 includes two levels. Level 1 (N1) determines the reference power for the hybrid system represented depending upon the receiver: Ptotal_ref . If positive, this power must be absorbed by the hybrid system; if negative, the latter must return it to the DC bus. 2, which are activated depending upon the amount of power produced by the local generator: – when the latter supplies power and thus the current it delivers is different from zero (Igen ≠ 0), the DC bus voltage is maintained by the generator’s converter.

This choice leads to excess weight and overloading. 4). 4. 3. 5. A grid of the type that can be found, for example, in more electric aircraft in the nacelle of an aircraft is used. It is constituted by a local electricity production source of approximately 15 kW (permanent magnet synchronous generator – PMSG, which can be actuated by the main engines via a 24 Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation Systems mechanical gear box), two bidirectional power charges (charges 1 and 2) and a unidirectional charge (charge 3).

In these circumstances, an increase in the DC bus voltage may be encountered. 7). This combination, storage and dissipation, is hereinafter referred to as “hybrid system”. The dissipation system can, for example, take action in case of increased overload of the storage system. 6. 7. 4. Supervisor design methodology The graphic method presented in Chapter 1 is implemented to design the supervisor. This methodology does not require mathematical models, since it is based on a system expertise represented by fuzzy rules.

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Coast Guard aids to navigation by United States. Coast Guard


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