Epistemology

Download e-book for kindle: Cultures without Culturalism: The Making of Scientific by Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller

By Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller

ISBN-10: 0822363720

ISBN-13: 9780822363729

Cultural money owed of medical principles and practices have more and more end up welcomed as a corrective to previous—and nonetheless extensively held—theories of clinical wisdom and practices as common. The editors warning, notwithstanding, opposed to the temptation to overgeneralize the paintings of tradition, and to lapse right into a form of essentialism that flattens the variety and diversity of medical paintings. The ebook refers to this tendency as culturalism. The individuals to the amount version a brand new course the place historicized and cultural debts of clinical perform continue their specificity and complexity with out falling into the traps of culturalism. They learn, between different matters, the possibility of utilizing notions of tradition to review habit in monetary markets; the ideology, association, and perform of earthquake tracking and prediction in the course of China's Cultural Revolution; the background of quadratic equations in China; and the way learning the "glass ceiling" and employment discrimination turned authorized within the social sciences. Demonstrating the necessity to comprehend the paintings of tradition as a fluid and dynamic approach that without delay either shapes and is formed through clinical perform, Cultures with no Culturalism makes an immense intervention in technology studies.

members. Bruno Belhoste, Karine Chemla, Caroline Ehrhardt, Fa-ti Fan, Evelyn Fox Keller, Kenji Ito, Guillaume Lachenal, Donald MacKenzie, Mary Morgan, Nancy Nersessian, David Rabouin, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Claude Rosental, Koen Vermeir

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2009. Fool’s Gold: How Unrestrained Greed Corrupted a Dream, Shattered Global Markets and Unleashed a Catastrophe. London: Little, Brown. Vatin, F. 2013. ” Valuation Studies 1(1): 31–50. Viveiros de Castro, E. 2004. ” Common Knowledge 10: 463–484. KENJI ITO 2 Cultural Difference and Sameness Historiographic Reflections on Histories of Physics in Modern Japan In this chapter, I address historical studies of culture and science in Japan by discussing some case studies of the history of science in Japan that reveal the kinds of culturalism that sometimes affect the way historical studies of science in the non-Western world are written and evaluated.

Crucially, there was no explicit modeling of the phenomenon that the evaluators of CDOs were to call “correlation” (see below). Interdependence among defaults was handled by other means, such as the use of historically based “stress scenarios,” above all the mortgage defaults of the Great Depression; at Standard & Poor’s, for example, the criterion for a rating of AAA was that the tranche in question could withstand Great Depression default rates or their equivalents for the pool in question. The use of stress scenarios then made it possible mathematically to treat mortgage defaults as independent events, because it could be argued that correlation was already taken into account (at least implicitly) in the adverse macroeconomic circumstances crystallized in the scenarios.

Reduce by one or more ratings grades) the debt instruments issued by corporations in a given industry if that industry formed more than 8 percent of the CDO’s pool (MacKenzie 2011). However, the practices employed in rating CDOs were affected by a historical contingency of a kind quite different from those that shaped the evaluation of mortgage-backed securities. The evaluation of CDOs was influenced deeply by the development of modern mathematical modeling of financial derivatives, in particular the most celebrated of all such models, the Black-Scholes option pricing model (Black and Scholes 1973).

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Cultures without Culturalism: The Making of Scientific Knowledge by Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller


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