By Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller
members. Bruno Belhoste, Karine Chemla, Caroline Ehrhardt, Fa-ti Fan, Evelyn Fox Keller, Kenji Ito, Guillaume Lachenal, Donald MacKenzie, Mary Morgan, Nancy Nersessian, David Rabouin, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Claude Rosental, Koen Vermeir
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Extra resources for Cultures without Culturalism: The Making of Scientific Knowledge
2009. Fool’s Gold: How Unrestrained Greed Corrupted a Dream, Shattered Global Markets and Unleashed a Catastrophe. London: Little, Brown. Vatin, F. 2013. ” Valuation Studies 1(1): 31–50. Viveiros de Castro, E. 2004. ” Common Knowledge 10: 463–484. KENJI ITO 2 Cultural Difference and Sameness Historiographic Reflections on Histories of Physics in Modern Japan In this chapter, I address historical studies of culture and science in Japan by discussing some case studies of the history of science in Japan that reveal the kinds of culturalism that sometimes affect the way historical studies of science in the non-Western world are written and evaluated.
Crucially, there was no explicit modeling of the phenomenon that the evaluators of CDOs were to call “correlation” (see below). Interdependence among defaults was handled by other means, such as the use of historically based “stress scenarios,” above all the mortgage defaults of the Great Depression; at Standard & Poor’s, for example, the criterion for a rating of AAA was that the tranche in question could withstand Great Depression default rates or their equivalents for the pool in question. The use of stress scenarios then made it possible mathematically to treat mortgage defaults as independent events, because it could be argued that correlation was already taken into account (at least implicitly) in the adverse macroeconomic circumstances crystallized in the scenarios.
Reduce by one or more ratings grades) the debt instruments issued by corporations in a given industry if that industry formed more than 8 percent of the CDO’s pool (MacKenzie 2011). However, the practices employed in rating CDOs were affected by a historical contingency of a kind quite different from those that shaped the evaluation of mortgage-backed securities. The evaluation of CDOs was influenced deeply by the development of modern mathematical modeling of financial derivatives, in particular the most celebrated of all such models, the Black-Scholes option pricing model (Black and Scholes 1973).
Cultures without Culturalism: The Making of Scientific Knowledge by Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller